EXTERIOR WALLS

Exterior Wall Panels General - Exterior Wall Panels, manufactured by LLC are a state of the art, fully engineered, Structural Building Systems orporating tubular steel and expanded Polystyrene, which provides a complete wall or roof sub-system.  The Polystyrene foam provides unparalleled insulating values, as well as, superior fire safety characteristics.

LLC panels do not support fungus, bacteria growth, or microorganisms, and have no nutritional value for pests or termites.  Additionally, LLC is both highly resistant to mildew and will not rot.

Strength and rigidity are produced by 1” x 2” 18 gauge galvanized steel tubes.  Tubes are recessed in the Polystyrene on both the interior and exterior sides and secured with self-tapping screws.  Additional support is provided by base and top angles of 18 gauge steel.  Steel structural members eliminate the problems of warp, twisting, bowing, moisture content, rot and waste associated with conventional wood construction.  Moreover, galvanized steel structural members provide the confidence and security of corrosion resistant metal.

 APPLICATIONS

LLC exterior wall panels provide an alternative to conventional stud wall and rafter system is in both residential and commercial applications.  This system offers superior strength, unprecedented insulating performance, and ease of installation.  Panels, up to 40 feet in length, are joined at the base and top by steel angles and 2” x 8” to plates to produce an extremely strong wall system.  Roof loads are carried by ridge and purlin laminated beams as well as intersecting wall plates.  Corners are further stabilized, both interiorly and exteriorly, by steel angles and brackets tec-screwed to the 1” x 2” steel support members.

DIMENSIONS AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES INSULATION CORE

Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) contains no formaldehyde, formaldehyde related chemicals, nor CFCs.  Thermal conductivity (k value) of 0.240 @ 40°, 1 P.C.F. density, rates a thermal resistance (R value) of 4.17 per h of thickness.

COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION

.000035 [in./(in.)(F.) (ASTM D-96)

 

DIMENSIONS AND WEIGHT

 

OVERALL THICKNESS                               SOUND ABSORPTION                          STC

Wall Panel                              7 Ό”                             @ 1,000 CPS                                    0.36

Roof Panel                             12”                               @ 2,000 CPS                                    0.54

Width (typical)                        48”                               @ 4,000 CPS                                    0.38

Width Tolerance                    +0.0833”

Standard Lengths (ft)           4’ to 40’                      

Weight                                    +2lb./S.F.

 

THERMAL PERFORMANCE

4.35 R/1” at 25° F

3.85 R/1” at 75° F

STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDELINES

     The LLC building system is fully engineered structural system designed to meet or exceed all major building codes.

Standard wall height of 9’ with 20 P.S.F. wind loads can easily sustain axial loads of 2,250 pounds per liner foot.

Uniform horizontal roof loads of 40 P.S.F. are a standard and easily sustained by roof panels with appropriate purlin or ridge beams 10 foot of center.

All plans, custom or standard are accompanied by section drawings with a structural engineers’ stamp.

MOISTURE  GAIN / THERMAL  RETENTION

EPS insulation is a closed cell Polystyrene foam that has a high degree of dimensional stability under moisture exposure.  Due to its closed cell structure of hydrophobic polymer, EPS has excellent resistance to moisture absorption by submersion in water or burial in continuously wet clay soil.  Most, if not all, of such moisture gains in EPS are either surface or interstitial and have limited effect on thermal values (i.e. 94% of R-value retention with 5.0% of moisture gain (% by volume)).  Even when moisture gain is caused by unidirectional continuous vapor diffusion, EPS is far more resistant to adverse thermal impacts than other insulations.

FIRE SAFETY

Finish Rating

     ½” or ⅝” drywall provide the necessary rating as required by uniform building codes.  ASTM 119 load bearing assembly is available for one (1) hour application.

Structural Integrity in Fire Conditions

May ignite between 600-650°F.  By comparison, Douglas fir products ignite at approximately 500°

Shrinks away from contact with flame sources without burning.  Burning will cease with removal of flame source.

Toxicity of Combustion Products

Contains 0.0833% of the combustibles present in wood products. 

By-products of combustion are carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, but in concentrations less than equal volume of wood product.

Unlike sandwich panels which derive strength from glue and wood products, LLC panels achieve their strength and load bearing capacity from tubular steel frame members.  The LLC insulating components provide additional stiffness and rigidity.

FOR MORE INFORMATION

   For additional information on LLC products and applications, contact our company.  whp061@msn.com

 

 Frequently Asked Questions FAQ

 
What are the advantages of panelized construction over conventionally framed buildings?
 
Panelized homes made from , .™ panels are erected quickly, provide unprecedented energy efficiency, offers tremendous design flexibility and are substantially stronger than conventional framing.  In essence, the , .™ panelized system is the construction method of the 21st Century.
 
 
What holds the house up se framing is not used?
 
Structural support is provided by steel framing members placed 24" on center and screw connected to steel engines at both the top and bottom of the panels.  This assembly results in a wall exponentially stronger than a conventional 2" x 4" wall.
 
 
What are the disadvantages to this type of panelized construction?
 
, .™ wall and roof panels are state-of-the-art construction.  As such, many builders may not be familiar with erection techniques.  Fortunately, shell erection can be handled by an experienced , . or local contractor familiar with this type of assembly.  Moreover, techniques required for construction are very easy to master, and instruction is provided by , .
 
 
Is there an advantage to the 7" panel thickness for walls and 12" panel thickness for the roof?
 
Yes, indeed.  This construction system provides the highest level of energy efficiency (4.35 R/1" at 25°F, 3.85 R/1" at 75°F) for a given wall or roof system available in the industry.  Additionally, because of the design flexibility, the homeowner receives more living space than in comparatively insulated houses, with the same outside dimensions, and vaulted (cathedral) ceilings in all living space directly below roof members.
 
 
What is the interior layout like in a , . home?
 
Because the building shell provides most of the load-carrying requirements of the house, there is inordinate flexibility of interior design.  In fact, the improved volume space offered by this system is a  feature favored by homeowners.  Users can select a  home design, plan the layout themselves, or work with an architect, builder or , . representative to provide for all your special needs.  Unlike most houses, the structure does not constrain your design flexibility.
 
 
Sips Panels
 
 
What are Sips Panels?
 
, .™ panels are highly insulated building panels which have a core of rigid insulation supported with exterior and interior steel framing members made from 1" x 2" 18 gauge galvanized steel.  The steel framing members are joined together with self-tapping screws to provide a warp-free integral structure.  Adjacent panels are joined with top and bottom 1-1/2" x 1-1/2" steel angles which are secured with self-tapping screws.
 
 
What kind of exterior siding can be used on the panels?
 
Virtually any type of exterior application can be employed.  This would lude masonry, wood, vinyl or aluminum.
 
 
How are panels made?
 
Panels are designed, cut and assembled to very specific tolerances at the , . plant.  Each wall and roof section is custom made for a specific home.  Therefore, both builders and home owners have confidence that the , .™ system is made specifically for their use.
 
 
Are there problems with dimensional stability of the panels?
 
Panels are extremely stable, and while they may expand slightly, the effect is almost indefinable.
 
 
Does the R-value of the EPS experience thermal drift?
 
No, when properly insulated, the R-value of EPS insulation remains constant because the cellular structure contains only stabilized air.  The R-value of EPS will not decrease with age.  As a result, the thermal resistance, or R-value, may be used without age adjustment.
 
 
Why isn't there a vapor barrier in the panel?
 
The panel itself serves as the vapor barrier.  Most model building codes require a vapor barrier with a perm rating of 1 or less.  The perm rating of the , .™ system is less
than 1.  Moreover, with the , .™ system wall, voids are eliminated and therefore moisture does not condense.  Moisture is not a problem with this panelized system.  The expanded Polystyrene (EPS) material in the panels will absorb and release moisture on a seasonal basis, but there are no harmful effects from this cycling.
 
 
Do I need to add a vapor barrier or use a vapor retardant paint?
 
No vapor barrier is required with the panel.  The only place where moisture migration might be a concern is at panel joints;  however, these joints are sealed following installation to prevent moisture areas, such as kitchens and bathrooms, is recommended.
 
 
Environmental and Health Concerns
 
 
What are the physical properties of expanded Polystyrene (EPS)?
 
EPS is an advanced formulation of lightweight, closed cellplastic foam material composed of hydrogen and carbon atoms.  It is derived from petroleum and natural gas by-products and developed for high R-value, structural strength, and for safety characteristics.
 
 
Does temperature cycling affect EPS insulating characteristics?
 
No.  EPS is able to withstand the abuses of temperature (freeze-thaw) cycling without loss of structural integrity or other physical properties, thus assuring long term performance.
 
 
Is EPS manufactured with chloroflourocarbons (CFCs) or hydroclorofluoro carbons (HCFCs)?
 
No.  EPS neither contains nor uses chlorofluorocarbons, usually referred to as CFCs or hydrochloroflourocarbons, referred to as HCFCs, in its manufacturing process.
 
 
What happens when the panel burns?
 
When the panels burn, quantities of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are released; however the volume released is substantially less than that released by a comparable amount from white oak or Douglas fir.
 
 
What is the wall finish rating of our Sips Panels?
 
ASTM testing by an independent laboratory showed the wall finish rating of our panels can achieve up to a one hour rating with drywall attached.  Complete information on wall and roof finish ratings is available from , .
 
 
What are the building code requirements for panels relative to fire?
 
Building and fire codes vary from location to location, however, typically a 15 minute finish rating is required for light construction.  , .™ panels, with an interior layer of 1/2" drywall, significantly surpasses this requirement.  Complete information on wall and roof finish ratings is available from , .
 
 
Do I need an air-to-air heat exchanger?
 
Air-to-air heat exchangers, and/or other types of mechanical ventilation are recommended in all tight houses, including those constructed with our panels. we  recommend that air-to-air heat exchangers be incorporated into all of our Sips Panel homes.
 
 
Does EPS offer good moisture resistance?
 
Yes.  A study by the Energy materials Testing Laboratory has show that EPS insulation does not absorb appreciable moisture, even under conditions characteristic of prolonged, cold, damp winters.  The small amount of moisture absorbed (an average of 0.02% by weight) has little or no effect on compression and flexural strength.  Further, the EPS insulation retains between 95% and 97% of its thermal efficiency.
 
 
Finishing a , . Home
 
 
What skills are required for finishing a , . home?
 
General carpentry skills are all you will need to finish a home constructed with the , .™ panelized wall and roof system.  Skilled homeowners can do most of the work themselves, subcontracting work requiring specialized skills such as electrical and plumbing.
 
 
How is the roof finished?
 
After panel joints are sealed, 1/2" OSB or plywood is fastened to the steel structural members in the roof panels, and then felt paper and shingles are installed.
 
 
Can exterior siding be directly applied to the , .™ panels?
 
Generally, yes.  Felt paper and other moisture barriers should not be used between the panels and siding;  however, an air barrier such as Tyvek or Typar is recommended.
 
 
How should the siding be applied?
 
Horizontal siding is screwed directly to the structural support members of the panels.
 
 
Are windows and doors difficult to install?
Windows and doors are ready to install in a , . home because of the exacting standards used to cut rough openings prior to delivery.  After 2"x8" framing, units are set into the openings and shimmed to level.  Then, the perimeters are sealed with expanding foam sealer, resulting in an energy efficient installation.
 
 
How are interior walls installed?
 
Interior partition walls are generally constructed of either wood or steel 2x4s and sheathed with drywall, as in conventional frame construction.  Where an interior partition wall meets an exterior wall, the edge stud is screwed into a structural support member pre-designed for that location.
 
 
How do you run wiring in panels?
 
Horizontal wiring runs are engineered into the panels prior to assembly, so field wiring is simplified.  Vertical runs can be field routed with minimal effort.
 
 
How are electrical boxes attached to panels?
 
The boxes are field screwed to the structural support members in the wall panels.
 
 
How do you run plumbing in a Sips home?
 
There will be almost no difference between plumbing in a , . home and plumbing in a conventional framed house.
 
 
How are walls finished in a Sips home?
 
Walls are generally finished with drywall on the interior face.  Typically, the drywall is fastened with self-tapping screws to the support members of the panel;  however, some builders use construction adhesive in applying drywall to the , .™ panels, enabling them to use fewer fasteners.
 
 
What is the best type of heating system for a  Sips. home?
 
Any type of heating system can be used; however, the advantages of this unique, high energy efficient panelized system will reduce the BTU loading requirement substantially from what is conventionally expected.  Where gas is available, a 50 GAL hot water tank will meet all heating and domestic hot water needs.  Therefore, work with your heating contractor, general contractor or , . Representative for recommendations.
 
 
For additional information on , . homes, custom designs and details on shell erection and finishing, contact our company. at whp061@msn.com